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The Way Is In The Training..


Martial Arts Is Not Self-Defence: Real World Violence Prevention..

Matt Beecroft,
Guest Contributor.. 

Violence is bigger than all of us. Just as we will never understand people fully, we can never understand a subject as convoluted and complex as violence.

Unless you’ve been exposed to a lot of violence, your training will be subjective. Most people’s idea of violence is one based off their own interpretation of what they learn in the dojo, see in the ring, or watch in a movie. In rare cases it comes from personal experience working as a police officer or prison guard. But how many of us deal with violent offenders daily?

Violence Is About Conflict..

Many people teaching martial arts have little to no experience with real world, brutal violence yet proclaim to teach self-defence. And very few critically look at what they are teaching or have been taught. Many of us have been caught up in dogma, a way of looking at violence due to our work – the martial art or ring sport in which we participate. Because we lack real world experience we tell ourselves a story about how we think it is rather than how it actually is in reality. We assume way too much.

“We often use assumption, reason, tradition, and recreation as a way of training for real world violence.”

Many practitioners are not able to separate reality from the stuff they see in the movies. And this is a problem if we are teaching others the same. We often use assumption, reason, tradition, and recreation as a way of training for real world violence.

Violence is ultimately about conflict. Conflict comes in many forms:

  • A group of guys brawling in pub.
  • Two muay Thai fighters duelling it out in the ring.
  • A psychiatrist trying to administer a sedative to an aggressive emotionally disturbed person.
  • A police officer trying to handcuff an ice addict.
  • A crowd controller escorting a drunk off the premises.
  • Someone being held up at an ATM under knifepoint.
  • Armed bandits invading a home.
  • A sexual predator following a young female home from the bus stop.
  • Kids bullying on the playground and a violent drunken spouse abusing his partner.

These are all different situations and all require different psychological, tactical, and physical skills. Yet they are all lumped into the subject of violence and self-defence. The only real experts are in fact the criminals who perpetrate violence onto others regularly and without conscience – the predators.

Do You Teach Self Defence?

The million dollar question is how do we train for something that is so hard to define?

Martial artists try to do it all. Self-discovery and enlightenment, physical fitness, street fighting, ring fighting, and self-defence. We try to be all things to all people. We even throw in military and combat training for good measure to macho it up. Whilst all these aspects can all be connected in some way, they are not interchangeable. 

Training in a martial art is not necessarily training for self-defence. Training for a ring sport or mat sport is not training for self-defence either. And training for combat is also not self-defence unless you walk around with an automatic weapon in tactical gear on the street day to day.

“Because we lack real world experience we tell ourselves a story about how we think it is rather than how it actually is in reality. We assume way too much.”

Whilst all of these domains most certainly have practical applications that can be useful in self-defence training, they are not, in essence, self-defence training. Yet when someone rings up a martial arts school and asks, “Do you teach self-defence?” the answer is always yes. And that irks me. The dollar has become more important than integrity and our moral and social responsibilities.

If you look at the roots of most traditional martial arts and how they still train, it has little to do with dealing with modern day violence and assaults. If we take an amazing traditional art like ninjitsu and look at its origins and its reason for practice – assassination by stealth – then I think we can safely say many people are going to question its modern day self defence applications.




I love the traditional arts. They are amazing and how I got started. I don’t think one style or system is better than another. But I think the problem lies in practitioners being delusional about what it is they are training for. While carrying a ninjato, climbing trees, and disappearing into puffs of smoke might humourously be considered useful strategies to avoid conflict, they probably don’t have practical application for modern day self-defence in 2015.

“Stress inoculation must happen in training, otherwise we risk sending people into the wilderness with false confidence.”

My experience in learning technique in many systems is often like this: Attacker assaults defender. Defender does technique X. The technique is successful. Finish. And it woefully attempts to replicate real world violence. When you think about effective self-defence training, does waiting for ideal circumstances to perform technique X seem like a great strategy?

In many real life situations, unless we are assaulted by surprise there is both a pre-confrontation and pre-fight stage. So why aren’t we learning in training how to deal with the situation earlier to avoid the physical assault to begin with? It is foolish to believe that the chance of you being attacked under ideal circumstances will ever happen. Attacks don’t occur in well-lit spacious areas with soft matting and minimal contact.

Real World Self-Defence Training..

Useful training needs to address how to recover from the fear, pain, and surprise of an assault as quickly as possible to survive. Stress inoculation must happen in training, otherwise we risk sending people into the wilderness with false confidence. 

You may be injured and in pain before you are even aware of the conflict and what is going on around you in a real life situation. You will need to break free of the shock and surprise to beat your own fear and change instantly into the mindset of a predator from that of a victim. This needs to happen in just a few seconds in order to survive. This is no easy feat. But it needs to be trained if we are to successfully prepare people for “the wild”.

“Non-reality based training sets you up to become a victim rather than learning to take the upper hand with initiative.”

Real self-defence training then also needs to address how to avoid violence and how to not be assaulted in the first place, either through bad luck or stupidity. Training needs to be preventative and we need to spend more time learning prevention techniques. We should be looking to flee or avoid, de-escalate or negotiate; posture, stun and run; or comply depending on the context. If it has to become physical, then we must train to do so on our terms as much as possible.  

martial arts, self defence, self-defence, fighting, violence

Stop Being a Victim..

Waiting for a person to bring violence to you before you execute your technique isn’t a great strategy. We need to outwit, not just outfight. Non-reality based training sets you up to become a victim rather than learning to take the upper hand with initiative. There needs to be a change in mindset from one of reluctant victim to wary predator in order to shift the odds of surviving violence in your favour.

The Way Is In The Training..


What is the definition of Pencak Silat?

The official name used to indicate more than 800 martial arts schools and styles spread across more than 13,000 islands in Indonesia is called “pencak silat”. However, this is actually a compound name consisting of two terms used in different regions. The word “pencak” and its dialectic derivatives such as “penca” (West Java) and “mancak” (Madura and Bali) is commonly used in Java, Madura and Bali, whereas the term “silat” or “silek” is used in Sumatra.
The ambition to unify all these different cultural expressions in a common terminology as part of declaring Indonesia’s unity and independence from colonial power, was first expressed in 1948 with the establishment of the Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia (Indonesian Pencak Silat Association, IPSI). However, it could only be realized in 1973 when representatives from different schools and styles finally formally agreed to the use of “pencak silat” in official discourse, albeit original terms are still widely used at the local level.
What are the origins of Pencak Silat?
It is not easy tracing the history of pencak silat because written documentation was limited and oral information was handed down from the gurus or masters. Each region in the archipelago has its own version of its origin which is largely based on oral tradition. Malay myths concur that pencak silat was originally developed by tribal groups in the archipelago through the observation of animal movements and other natural phenomena, in an effort to defend themselves from wild creatures and other environmental dangers. In the course of time, pencak silat eventually become instrumental in attaining social status when fighting among tribal groups, clans, communities and later kingdoms. Because of his/her skills a person could be feared and respected by the surrounding society, and secure prestige and political power.
Pencak silat as self-defense has always existed since human beings had to fight with each other and with wild animals in order to survive. At that time, people who were strong and skilled in fighting could attain a privileged position in society, and could become heads of clans or army commanders. In the long run, fighting techniques started to be regulated, so that a comprehensive martial art form was developed which was eventually called pencak silat. (Asikin 1975:9-10)
Subjugation happened because groups of people started to fight each other to gain control of power. In an effort to expand the conquered areas, kingdoms were created. To maintain and expand the power of these kingdoms, self-defense, with or without arms, was developed. (Liem, 1960:38-40)
When, where and how this process of systematization started nobody knows. What can be gathered from the scant information available is that pencak silat developed from the acculturation of various self-defense styles, which had developed locally under different names and with different characteristics.

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Pencak Silat’s Role in History..
Pencak silat plays an important role in Indonesia’s history. Since the age of ancient Indonesian Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms like Srivijaya, Majapahit, and Kingdom of Sunda, these kingdoms used pencak silat to train their soldiers and warriors.
Archaeological evidence reveals that by the sixth century A.D. formalized combative systems were being practiced in the area of Sumatra and the Malay peninsula. Two kingdoms, the Srivijaya in Sumatra from the 7th to the 14th century and the Majapahit in Java from the 13th to 16th centuries made good use of these fighting skills and were able to extend their rule across much of what is now Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
According to tradition of Minangkabau, their Silek (Minangkabau pencak silat) can be traced to the fore father of ancient Minangkabau people, Datuk Suri Dirajo. It is said that according to old Javanese poetry, Kidung Sunda, the sentinels of the Prabu Maharaja Sunda exhibited great skill in the art of pencak silat when they escorted Princess Dyah Pitaloka to Majapahit as a potential bride for King Hayam Wuruk, and faced indignities that greatly affronted their honour[2]. In a battle that ensued at the Bubat field (1346), the Sundanese forces fought to the last drop of blood, using special pencak silat moves and various weapons. Albeit the pencak silat styles employed in combat were different, we can still draw the conclusion that in Javanese kingdoms throughout the archipelago, pencak silat served the same function: to defend, maintain or expand territory.

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Different styles of Pencak Silat..
There is no overall standard for Pencak Silat. Each style has its own particular movement patterns, specially designed techniques and tactical rationale. The richness of terms reflects a wide diversity in styles and techniques across the regions due to the fact that pencak silat has been developed by different masters who have created their own style according to their preferences and to the physical environment and social-cultural context in which they live. For example, West Java, Central Java and West Sumatra.
West Java is inhabited by a specific ethnic group with specific cultural and social norms. For them, pencak silat is part of their way of life or as they say, “the blood in their body”. In their language they say “penca” or “menpo” (from “maen poho’, which literally means play with trickery) to indicate their main four styles Cimande, Cikalong, Timbangan, and Cikaret and all the schools and techniques which have derived from them. The Sundanese people have always utilized penca/menpo for self-defense and recreation, and only recently have started to use it as a sport in national and regional competitions.

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The bela-diri (self-defense) aspect of penca can be very dangerous. Therefore it was kept secret, especially its mystical aspect where only selected students were taught in phases. Penca as an art (penca ibing) has been a source of inspiration for traditional Sundanese dances such as Jaepongan, Ketu’tilu’, Dombret, and Cikeruhan and actually it resembles dance in its use of music instruments. These instruments, called “pencak drummers” (gendang penca), are devoted exclusively to penca performances and consist of two sets of drummers (gendang anak dan kulantir), a trumpet (tetet) and a gong. Pencak performances also use standard music rhythms such as tepak dua, tepak tilu, tepak dungdung, golempang and paleredan. Penca as art is not considered dangerous and can be openly shown to everyone. From generation to generation until today, penca performances animate wedding parties, rituals of circumcision, celebrations of the rice harvest and all kind of national festivities.

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The Way Is In The Training..


Bruce Lee..

Bruce Lee (Lee Hsiao Lung), was born in San Fransisco in November 1940 the son of a famous Chinese opera singer. Bruce moved to Hong Kong when he soon became a child star in the growing Eastern film industry. His first film was called The birth of Mankind, his last film which was uncompleted at the time of his death in 1973 was called Game of Death. Bruce was a loner and was constantly getting himself into fights, with this in mind he looked towards Kung Fu as a way of disciplining himself. The famous Yip Men taught Bruce his basic skills, but it was not long before he was mastering the master. Yip Men was acknowledged to be one of the greatest authorities on the subject of Wing Chun a branch of the Chinese Martial Arts. Bruce mastered this before progressing to his own style of Jeet Kune Do.

At the age of 19 Bruce left Hong Kong to study for a degree in philosophy at the University of Washington in America. It was at this time that he took on a waiter’s job and also began to teach some of his skills to students who would pay. Some of the Japanese schools in the Seattle area tried to force Bruce out, and there was many confrontations and duels fought for Bruce to remain.

He met his wife Linda at the University he was studying. His Martial Arts school flourished and he soon graduated. He gained some small roles in Hollywood films – Marlowe- etc, and some major stars were begging to be students of the Little Dragon. James Coburn, Steve McQueen and Lee Marvin to name but a few. He regularly gave displays at exhibitions, and it was during one of these exhibitions that he was spotted by a producer and signed up to do The Green Hornet series. The series was quite successful in the States – but was a huge hit in Hong Kong. Bruce visited Hong Kong in 1968 and he was overwhelmed by the attention he received from the people he had left.

He once said on a radio program if the price was right he would do a movie for the Chinese audiences. He returned to the States and completed some episodes of Longstreet. He began writing his book on Jeet Kune Do at roughly the same time.

Back in Hong Kong producers were desperate to sign Bruce for a Martial Arts film, and it was Raymond Chow the head of Golden Harvest who produced The Big Boss. The rest as they say is history.

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Bruce Lee Chronological Time Line..

    • 1940 – November 27 – San Francisco- In the The Year of the Dragon between 6:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. (the hour of the dragon), Lee Jun Fan, Bruce Lee is born at the Jackson Street Hospital in San Francisco Chinatown while his father and mother traveled to the U.S. Lee Hoi Chuen, Bruce’s father, was performing with the Cantonese Opera Company in America. At three months old, Bruce debuts in “Golden Gate Girl” in San Francisco, CA. He plays role of a female baby, carried by his father.
    • 1941 (Age 1): Hong Kong – Bruce and his parents return to Kowloon, their family home. They move to into an apartment at 218 Nathan Road, Kowloon district. The apartment is located on the second story of a building which contained a store on the ground level.
    • 1946 (Age 6): Hong Kong – Bruce makes his first major childhood movie in The Beginning of a Boy. Later this year, he performs in The Birth of Mankind, andMy Son, Ah Cheun. (During the later years of his childhood, Bruce appears in 20 more films in Asia. In these films, Bruce’s vivid facial expressions begin to develop, and they foreshadow his future expressions in his famous Kung-Fu movies. Bruce becomes nearsighted and starts wearing glasses. (He will later start wearing contacts, suggested to him by a friend who is an optometrist.)
    • 1952 (Age 12): Hong Kong – Bruce begins attending La Salle College.
    • 1953 (Age 13): Hong Kong – After being beaten up by a street gang, Bruce begins to take Kung-Fu lessons, despite local Hong Kong laws, outlawing street fights. This is the first, and the last time Bruce loses a fight. He begins to train under Sifu Yip Man, a master of the Wing Chun system of Kung-Fu.
    • 1954 (Age 14): Hong Kong – Bruce takes up cha-cha dancing.
    • 1958 (Age 18): Hong Kong – Bruce wins the Crown Colony Cha-Cha Championship. Bruce has a leading role in the film The Orphan. This is the last movie Bruce makes as a child actor. This is the only movie where Bruce does not fight.
    • 1958 (Age 18): ??? – Bruce enters the 1958 Boxing Championships and defeats the reigning three year champion, Gary Elms.
    • 1959 (Age 19): Hong Kong – Because of numerous street fighting, causing police involvement, Bruce’s father and mother decide that Bruce should take a three week voyage to the United States. The trip is a possible means to get him back on the right track. He return to his birth-place — San Francisco Chinatown. Time was also running out for him to claim his American Citizenship.
    • 1959 (Age 19): San Francisco – Seattle – With $15 from his father, and $100 from his mother, Bruce arrives in the United States, living with an old friend of his father’s. He works odd jobs around the various Chinese communities. Later, he moves to Seattle to work for Ruby Chow, another friend of his father’s. He lives in a room above her restaurant while working as a waiter downstairs. He eventually enrolls in Edison Technical School and earns his high school diploma. Bruce begins to teach his Martial Art skills in backyards and city parks.
    • 1961 – March (Age 21): Seattle- Bruce enrolls at the University of Washington, studying Philosophy. He teaches Kung-Fu to students at school.
    • 1963 – Summer (Age 23): Hong Kong – Bruce proposes to Amy Sanbo but is turned down. Bruce returns to Hong Kong with friend Doug Palmer for the first time since his arrival in the U.S. to visit family. He then returns to Seattle at the end of summer to continue his education.
    • 1963 – October 25 (Age 23): Seattle – Bruce takes out Linda Emery (his future wife) for their first date. They have dinner at the Space Needle. Bruce gives notice to Ruby Chow and leaves her restaurant. He starts the first Jun Fan Kung-Fu Institute.
    • 1963 – Fall (Age 23): Seattle – Bruce moves his Jun Fan Kung-Fu Institute into a building (4750 University Way) near the university campus. He teaches any person of any race. (most Asian Martial Arts schools would only teach people of their own race). At Garfield High School, Bruce demonstrates the “One-Inch Punch”. This is the punch he would later make famous at the 64′ Long Beach Internationals and which was developed by him and James DeMile in Seattle. Bruce would hold his arm straight out, and with a shrug of his shoulder, knock a man straight across the ground.
    • 1964 (Age 24): ??? Bruce meets Jhoon Rhee at the International Karate Championships. The two would remain good. (Jhoon Rhee will invite Bruce to Washington, D.C. to appear at tournaments.)
    • 1964 – June (Age 24): ??? – Bruce discusses with James Yimm Lee plans to open a second Jun Fan Kung-Fu Institute in Oakland, CA.
    • 1964 – Summer – Oakland (Age 24): Plans are finalized, and Bruce leaves Seattle to start a second Jun Fan Kung-Fu school in Oakland. His good friend, Taky Kimura, takes over as head instructor.
    • 1964 – August 17 (Age 24): Seattle – Bruce returns to Seattle to marry Linda. They soon move to Oakland.
    • 1964 – August 2 (Age 24): Long Beach, Ca – Ed Parker, known as the Father of American Karate (Kenpo), invites Bruce to give a demonstration. Bruce shows off his “one-inch punch,” and his two-finger push-ups, where he literally does “two” finger push-ups. At his first International Karate Championships, Jay Sebring, the hair stylist for Batman, William dozier, a producer, who is looking to cast a part in a TV series he was developing. Sebring then gives a film of Bruce’s demo to Dozier who is impressed at Bruce’s super-human abilities. Bruce later flys down to Los Angeles for a screen test.
    • 1964 – August 4 (Age 24): Oakland – Bruce leaves for Seattle. He will propose to Linda.
    • 1965 (Age 24): Oakland – Several months after he begins teaching, he is challenged by, Wong Jack Man, a leading Kung-Fu practitioner in the Chinatown Community. They agree: If Bruce looses, he will, either close his school, or stop teaching Caucasians; and if Jack looses, he will stop teaching. Jack Man Wong does not belie Bruce would actually fight, and tries to delay the match. Bruce becomes angered and insists that they not wait. Wong then tries to put limitations on techniques. Bruce refuses “rules”and the two go no holds barred. Bruce begins to pound his opponent in only a couple of seconds. As Bruce is winning, Wong attemps to flee, but is caught by Bruce. Bruce begins to beat him on the ground. Students of the other teacher attempted to step in and help their teacher, James Lee, Bruce’s good friend prevent this. Later he is bothered on why the fight took so long and begins to re-evaluate his style. He is determined that he is not in his top physical condiiton. Thus, the early concepts of Jeet Kune Do (JKD), “The art of the intercepting fist” is created. JKD is an art including techniques of all types of fighting. (i.e. American Boxing, Thai Kick Boxing, Japanese Karate, etc.) His style is no style.
      Bruce is signed to a one-year option for The Green Hornet. He is paid an $1800 retainer.
    • 1965 – February 1 (Age 25): Oakland, CA – Brandon Bruce Lee is born.
    • 1965 – February 8 (Age 25): Hong Kong – Bruce’s father passes away in Hong Kong. Bruce returns to Hong Kong for his fathers funeral. As tradition dictates, in order to obtain forgiveness for not being present when his father died, Bruce crawls on his knees across the floor of the funeral home towards the casket wailing loudly and crying.
    • 1965 – May (Age 25): ??? Bruce uses the retainer money from the Green Hornet and flys himself, Linda, and Brandon back to Hong Kong in order to settle his father’s estate affairs. While in Hong Kong, Bruce takes Brandon to see Yip Man to persuade Yip to perform on tape. Bruce wants to take the footage back to Seattle and show his students what the man looks like in action. Yip modestly declines.
    • 1965 – September (Age 25): Seattle – Bruce, Linda, Brandon return to Seattle.
    • 1966 (Age 26): Los Angeles – Bruce and family move to Los Angeles to an apartment on Wilshire and Gayley in Westwood. This is where he begins working on a new TV series called The Green Hornet as Kato. The Green Hornet series starts filming and Bruce is Paid $400 per episode. Bruce buyse a 1966 blue Chevy Nova. Bruce is later known to have gotten the part of Kato because he was the only person who could accurately pronounce the star’s name, Britt Reid. He later opens third branch of the Jun Fan Kung-Fu Institute in Los Angeles’ Chinatown.
    • 1966 – September 9 (Age 26): Los Angeles – The Green Hornet series premiers.
    • 1967-1971 (Age 27-31): Hollywood – During this time, Bruce lands bit parts in various films and T.V. series. He also gives private lessons for up to $250 an hour to personalities Steve McQueen, James Coburn, James Garner, Lee Marvin, Roman Polanski, and Kareem Abdul Jabbar. Bruce meets Chuck Norris in New York at the All American Karate Championships in Washington D.C. Chuck fights Joe Lewis and wins.
    • 1967 (Age 27): Washington, D.C. – Bruce meets Joe Lewis at The Mayflower Hotel while both were guests at the 67′ National Karate Championships. Joe is competing in the tournament and Bruce is making special appearances as Kato.
    • 1967 – February (Age 27): Los Angeles – Bruce opens a 3rd school at 628 College Street, Los Angeles, CA. Dan Inosanto serves as assistant instructor.
    • 1967 – July 14 (Age 27): Los Angeles – The last episode of The Green Hornet Series shows. The movie is later said to have failed because Bruce, a minor role became more popular than the main character.
    • 1969 – April 19 (Age 29): Santa Monica, CA Shannon Lee is born.
    • 1969 (Age 29): ??? – A scriptwriter is hired and paid $12K by Stirling Silliphant and James Coburn to write a script for the Silent Flute. The script produced is unacceptable, and no other scriptwriter could seen to do the job. They then decide to write it themselves.
    • 1970 (Age 30): Los Angeles – Bruce injures his sacral nerve and experiences severe muscle spasms in his back while training. Doctors told him that he would never kick again. During the months of recovery he starts to document his training methods and his philosophy of Jeet Kune Do. Later after his death, The Tao of Jeet Kune Do is published by his wife in memory of Bruce Lee.
    • 1970 (Age 30): Hong Kong – Bruce and Brandon fly to Hong Kong and are welcomed by fans of The Green Hornet Show.
      Bruce sends Unicorn to talk to Run Run Shaw on his behalf and inform Shaw that he would be willing to do a movie for him for $10K. Shaw makes counter-offer of a seven year contract and $2K per film which Bruce declines.
    • 1971 – February (Age 31): India – Bruce, James Coburn, Stirling Silliphant fly to India to scout locations for The Silent Flute. They spend one month searching but are forced to call off the search as Coburn backs out of the project. This trip gives Bruce the idea for Game of Death, where a fighter, mastering in several techniques, will go from one level to the next in a temple: the first level (the level of weaponry), the second level (the level of the nine degree black belt), and the third level ( “The level of the unknown.”)
    • 1971 (Age 31): Hong Kong. – Bruce takes a short trip back to Hong Kong to arrange for his mother to live in the U.S. Unknowingly to him, he had become a superstar for The Green Hornet was one of the most popular TV shows in Hong Kong. Later, he is approached by Raymond Chow, owner of a new production company, and offered the lead role in a new film called The Big Boss. Bruce accepts.
      Bruce is supplied with small furnished apartment at 2 Man Wan Road – Kowloon, HK. Wu Ngan, moves in with Bruce and Linda. Later Wu Ngan marries and his new wife moves in as well. Brandon attends La Salle College. The same school Bruce attended only 15 years before. Bruce is inteviewed by Canadian talk show host, Pierre Berton, for a tv program being filmed in Hong Kong. This is the only on film said to be in existance.
    • 1971- July (Age 31): Thailand – Filming begins for The Big Boss (released in the U.S. as Fists of Fury). The Big Boss opens in Hong Kong to great reviews and mobs of fans. Proceeds to gross more than $3.5 million in little than three weeks.
    • 1971 – December 7 (Age 31): Hong Kong – Bruce receives telegram, notifying him that he had not been chosen fo the part in the upcoming series, The Warrior. This series was later released as Kung-Fu, staring David Carradine, who doesn’t know shit about martial arts. (The show aired as ABC-TVs Movie of the Week on February 21, 1972.)
    • 1972 (Age 32): Hong Kong – Fist of Fury (released in the U.S. as The Chinese Connection) is released. It grosses more than The Big Boss and further establishes Bruce as a Hong Kong superstar. Bruce gets a larger budget, a larger salary, and more power of directing in this film. Bruce begins work on Game of Death and films several fight scenes including Danny Inosanto and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar.
      Bruce appears on Hong Kong’s TVB channel for a hurricane disaster relief benefit. In a demo Bruce performs, he breaks 4 out of 5 boards, one of which is hanging in the air with a line of string. Brandon even performs and breaks a board with a sidekick!
      Bruce helps Unicorn, a fellow actor, by assisting him for one day and supervises fight action sequences in Unicorn’s film, The Unicorn Palm – Footage of Bruce on the set is used in the movie and Bruce’s name appears in the credits to his surprise causing Bruce to become angry and make a public announcement denying his endorsement of the film. Unicorn was advised to get Bruce’s name in the credits, so his movie would have a better chance at being a success.
    • 1972 (Age 32): Rome, Italy – Location shots are made for Bruce’s third film The Way of the Dragon (released in the U.S. as The Return of the Dragon). This time Bruce gets almost complete control the the movie, which he writes, directs, and stars in. Chuck Norris is Bruce’s adversary in the final fight scene. Again, this film surpasses all records set by his previous two films.
    • 1972 – December 28 (Age 32): Oakland Bruce’s brother, James, dies of “Black Lung.”

  • 1973 – February (Age 33): Hong Kong – Bruce gets his chance at American stardom as filming of Enter the Dragon begins while Game of Death is put on hold. It is the first-ever production between the U.S. and Hong Kong film industries.
    On February 20, Bruce is guest of honor at St. Francis Xavier’s school for Sports Day ceremonies.
  • 1973 (Age 33): Los Angeles – Grace Lee, Bruce’s sister, sees Bruce in Los Angeles, CA. Bruce tells her that he does not expect to live much longer and that she is not to worry about finances as he will make sure she is provided for. She rebukes him for talking that way.
  • 1973 – April (Age 33): Hong Kong – Filming of Enter the Dragon is completed.
    Bruce is at Golden Harvest Studios in Hong Kong dubbing his voice for “Enter The Dragon”. The air conditioners had been turned off, so the microphones won’t pick them up. The temperature soared. Bruce takes a break looping lines to go to the bathroom and splash water on his face. In he bathroom, he passes out on the bathroom floor. He revives twenty minutes later just as an assistant sent to find out what was keeping him walks in and discovers him on the ground. He tries to conceal his collapse by acting as though he has dropped his glasses on the floor and is searching for them and is helped up by the assistant. As they are walking back to the dubbing room, Bruce collapses again and is rushed to a nearby hospital.
  • 1973 – July 10 (Age 33): Hong Kong – Bruce Lee is walking through the Golden Harvest Studios and overhears Lo Wei in a nearby room bad mouthing him. He confronts Lo Wei who retreats and summons the local police. When the police arrive Lo Wei falsely accuses Bruce of threatened him with a knife concealed in his belt buckle. He further insists that Bruce sign a statement that he will not harm him. Bruce signs the statement to get Lo Wei off his back although Lo Wei lied to the police and Bruce never had a knife nor threatened to kill him.
    That same day, Bruce appears on the Hong Kong TV show, Enjoy Yourself Tonight with host Ho Sho Shin. Bruce alludes to his problems with director Lo Wei, but does not mention him by name. Bruce is asked to display his physical prowess and demonstrates his abilities. Bruce demonstrates a technique and Shin is hurled across the stage. The show of power causes the press to indite Bruce in the paper and accuse him of bullying the talk show host though this was not the case.
  • 1973 – July 16 (Age 33): Hong Kong – Heavy rains fall caused by a typhoon off the coast of Hong Kong. Bruce makes a $200 phone call to speak to Unicorn in his hotel room, who is filming a movie in Manila. Bruce tells Unicorn that he is worried about the many headaches he is experiencing.
  • 1973 – July 18 (Age 33): Hong Kong – A bad Feng Shui deflector, placed on the roof of Bruce’s Cumberland Road home in Hong Kong is blown off the roof by heavy rain and winds. The deflector had been placed on the house to protect Bruce and family from bad Feng Shui; previous owners had all been plagued by financial disaster and it was believed that this was because of the incorrect positioning of the house. The deflector was to ward off evil spirits.
  • 1973 – July 20 (Age 33): Hong Kong – Early in the morning Bruce types a letter to his attorney, Adrian Marshall, detailing business ventures he wants to discuss on his upcoming trip to Los Angeles. Bruce had tickets already set to return to the US for a publicity tour and was scheduled to appear on the Johnny Carson show. Raymond Chow goes by Bruce’s house and the two discuss plans for their upcoming movie Game of Death. Linda kisses Bruce goodbye and says she is going out to run some errands and will see him later that night. Raymond and Bruce visit Betty Ting Pei at her apartment to discuss her role in Game of Death. That evening plans had been made for them all to meet George Lazenby over dinner and enlist him for a part. Bruce explains that he has a headache, takes a prescription pain killer offered by Betty, and lies down on her bed to rest prior to dinner. Raymond Chow departs and says that he will meet them later. Raymond Chow and George Lazenby meet at a restaurant and await Bruce and Betty’s arrival, but the two never show up. At 9:00 p.m. Chow receives a call from Betty; she said that she has tried to wake Bruce up but he won’t come to.
    Betty summons her personal physician who fails to revive Bruce and who has Bruce taken to the hospital. Bruce does not revive and is pronounced dead. The doctor’s are surprised that he had lasted as long as he did that night but unfortunately Betty did not get him help as soon as she could have.
    Bruce Lee dies in Hong Kong of an apparent cerebral edema (swelling of the brain). After much confusion and debate, doctors declared the death of Bruce Lee as “death by misadventure.” Enter the Dragon was delayed from its initial premieres a four days later because of the actors death.
  • 1973 – July 25 (Age 33): Hong Kong – A funeral ceremony is held for friends and fans in Hong Kong consisting of over 25,000 people. Bruce is dressed in the Chinese outfit he wore in Enter the Dragon.
  • 1973 – July 30 (Age 33): Seattle – After a smaller second ceremony in Seattle, Washington at Butterworth Funeral Home on East Pine Street, Bruce Lee is buried at Lake View Cemetery. His pallbearers included Steve McQueen, James Coburn, Danny Inosanto, Taky Kimura, Peter Chin, and his brother, Robert Lee.
  • 1973 – August 24 Hollywood – Enter The Dragon premiers at Graumann’s Chinese Theater. The movie is a success, and Bruce Lee achieves world-wide fame.
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The Way Is In The Training..


Krav Maga Was Created And Developed By Imi Lichtenfeld..

Imi Lichtenfeld..

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 Imi Lichtenfeld, Israeli Grand-master (1910-1998). He started it in the late 1940’s when serving as Chief Instructor of the IDF for hand-to-hand combat.

As a young man growing up in Bratislava, Slovakia, Lichtenfeld was a champion heavy weight boxer, a top-level wrestler and an expert in judo / ju-jitsu. His father was a police officer who was in charge of teaching defensive tactics. Lichtenfeld grew up in an environment where combative sports, law enforcement and ferocious street fights played equal rolls. He took part in numerous street fights defending the Jewish quarter against local fascists and Nazis before and during the first phase of World War II.

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Lichtenfeld immigrated to Palestine in 1942, which became Israel in 1948. Due to the political situation, Israel was immediately at war with its neighbours and did not have the luxury of having months of training soldiers in the boot camps. Because of this, the Israeli military needed an effective hand-to-hand combat system that could be learned very quickly, was easy to retain, and was very effective. Hence, the birth of Krav Maga in Israel. Beginning with Israeli Special Forces units, Krav Maga became the official combative training for all military personnel, Israeli police, and security forces.

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Since then it has been studied, tested, improved and developed extensively. Krav Maga techniques are now applied in areas such as law enforcement, elite military units, VIP protection and civilian self-defense programs for men, women and children.

Krav Maga, Hebrew for “contact combat”, is the official self-defense and hand-to-hand combat system of Israel. Krav Maga is a very practical style of self-defense and is used by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) to train soldiers and civilians to become efficient in a short amount of time.

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Krav Maga is an aggressive, anti-terrorist survival system without rules. It deals with personal safety issues in the context of defending against both armed and unarmed attackers with only one objective: to eliminate the threat in the fastest way possible. This Israeli system emerged in an environment where extreme violence was common and has been continually refined and developed in light of actual modern combat and self-defense experiences.

Krav Maga has received international recognition for its unique ability to train self defense techniques to civilians, military personnel and law enforcement alike.

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Krav Maga has a survival based mentality and street survival tactics that include a hybrid of mixed martial arts techniques also utilized in boxing, karate, judo, ju-jitsu, muay thai.  However, Krav Maga is one of the few fighting styles which adapts to the student rather than expecting the student to adapt to it.  Krav Maga teaches students to build on their natural reflexes and to use whatever techniques necessary to defend themselves.  It brings the students to a high level of skill in a relatively short period of time. 

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The Way Is In The Training..


A Set Of Potentially Life-Threatening Beliefs About What To Do In Dangerous Situations..

By Tim Larkin.

Myth #1 You Should Reason With Your Attacker..
You’ve probably never pulled out a knife and demanded someone’s watch. That’s a good thing, of course, but it illustrates a vital point: Someone who would do such a thing doesn’t think like you. Deep down, you probably believe there’s a way to resolve a problem without anyone getting hurt. Attackers aren’t playing by the same societal rules you are, so you can’t react as if they are. All you can ever really do is level the playing field.

Myth #2 If You’re Attacked, Scream For Help..
You don’t have time to wait for a hero. During a truly violent encounter, you have about five seconds to act, and the safest self-defense technique to take in a violent encounter is to cause an injury. Mistakes usually come from some hesitation: pausing to see how things are going, lacking the will to really kick a man, or jumping around in a fighting stance. These are opportunities for him to recover and hurt you. The reverse is also true—if your attacker hesitates or makes a mistake, it gives you a critical moment that you must use to survive.

Myth #3 You Need To Cause Pain..
In order to be 100 percent effective, we have to discard the notion of pain as a useful tool in violence. You don’t want to “hurt” him; you need to injure him. Anything you do in a violent, life-threatening situation that does not cause an injury is worthless to you.

Myth #4 Being Fit Can Save Your Life..
No matter how fit or strong you are, the best way to hone your self-protection skills is to focus on targeting key points of the body. After that, improving your fitness level can increase the force you deliver to the targets.

Myth #5 You Need Technical Self-Defense Skills..
Technique without injury is only a cool trick, and injury, regardless of how it occurred (with technique or by accident), will always be more effective. It’s not important how the injury happens, only that it happens. His ribs don’t know if they were broken by a boot, a stick, or a curb; they just know they’re broken. All you need is force and a target.

Myth #6 Women Who Survive Are Fearless..
The first effect in any violent situation is emotion, and the most common one is fear. When a man steps in front of you holding a knife, your adrenaline starts pumping and your heart beats faster. These are reactions that can’t be avoided—nor should they be. It’s the fight-or-flight survival instinct that allows you to focus on beating your enemy or getting the hell out of there.

Many people fear they will freeze up or act irrationally. When you know how to respond, you’ll still feel a certain amount of fear that you could be hurt, or that you’re about to cause harm to another human being, but that will be tempered with confidence.

Myth #7 Focus On Blocking His Attacks..
Many self-protection classes teach you to react to an attacker’s actions. This defensive thinking can make you hesitate (“What is he going to do to me?”), lose focus (waiting to get hurt makes most people freeze), and ultimately be one step behind the attacker. In a threatening situation, don’t worry about what he’s doing; make him worry about what you’re doing.

Myth #8 Try To Back Away From Your Attacker..
In life-threatening conflict, if you’re not injuring someone, you’re getting injured. Backing up or attempting to counter his “technique” with another technique (as is typically taught in self-defense classes) only gets you in more trouble: Your body is a lot better at going forward than it is at going backward; for every two feet you move backward, he can move forward three feet.

Myth #9 Hit As Often And As QuicklyAs Possible..
Punching and kicking are akin to slapping an attacker around. If you’re in danger, you need to throw all your weight into a single target, or “strike.” Imagine you’re facing a giant predator and you have a big sack full of rocks. Throw a single rock and “ouch!” is the only reaction you’re likely to get. But swing the entire sack at him, hitting him in the head, and he’ll be out cold. That’s the difference between punching and striking.

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The Way Is In The Training..


It  Has Always Been Said,  Size And Age Don’t Matter In Self-Defense And Martial Art Training..

Here Are A Couple Of Videos That Prove This Saying. Please Enjoy And Be Amazed.

 

The Way Is In The Training..


A Breif History of Akido..

Aikido’s founder, Morihei Ueshiba, was born in Japan on December 14, 1883. As a boy, he often saw local thugs beat up his father for political reasons. He set out to make himself strong so that he could take revenge. He devoted himself to hard physical conditioning and eventually to the practice of martial arts, receiving certificates of mastery in several styles of jujitsu, fencing, and spear fighting. In spite of his impressive physical and martial capabilities, however, he felt very dissatisfied. He began delving into religions in hopes of finding a deeper significance to life, all the while continuing to pursue his studies of budo, or the martial arts. By combining his martial training with his religious and political ideologies, he created the modern martial art of Aikido. Ueshiba decided on the name “Aikido” in 1942 (before that he called his martial art “aikibudo” and “aikinomichi”).

Morihei Ueshiba..

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On the technical side, Aikido is rooted in several styles of jujitsu (from which modern judo is also derived), in particular daitoryu-(aiki)jujitsu, as well as sword and spear fighting arts. Oversimplifying somewhat, we may say that Aikido takes the joint locks and throws from jujitsu and combines them with the body movements of sword and spear fighting. However, we must also realize that many Aikido techniques are the result of Master Ueshiba’s own innovation.

On the religious side, Ueshiba was a devotee of one of Japan’s so-called “new religions,” Omotokyo. Omotokyo was (and is) part neo-shintoism, and part socio-political idealism. One goal of omotokyo has been the unification of all humanity in a single “heavenly kingdom on earth” where all religions would be united under the banner of omotokyo. It is impossible sufficiently to understand many of O Sensei’s writings and sayings without keeping the influence of Omotokyo firmly in mind.

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Despite what many people think or claim, there is no unified philosophy of Aikido. What there is, instead, is a disorganized and only partially coherent collection of religious, ethical, and metaphysical beliefs which are only more or less shared by Aikidoists, and which are either transmitted by word of mouth or found in scattered publications about Aikido.

Some examples: “Aikido is not a way to fight with or defeat enemies; it is a way to reconcile the world and make all human beings one family.” “The essence of Aikido is the cultivation of ki [a vital force, internal power, mental/spiritual energy].” “The secret of Aikido is to become one with the universe.” “Aikido is primarily a way to achieve physical and psychological self- mastery.” “The body is the concrete unification of the physical and spiritual created by the universe.” And so forth. At the core of almost all philosophical interpretations of Aikido, however, we may identify at least two fundamental threads: (1) A commitment to peaceful resolution of conflict whenever possible. (2) A commitment to self-improvement through Aikido training.

Aikido was first brought to the rest of the world in 1951 by Minoru Mochizuki with a visit to France where he introduced aikido techniques to judo students. He was followed by Tadashi Abe in 1952 who came as the official Aikikai Hombu representative, remaining in France for seven years. Kenji Tomiki toured with a delegation of various martial arts through fifteen continental states of the United States in 1953. Later in that year, Koichi Tohei was sent by Aikikai Hombu to Hawaii, for a full year, where he set up several dojo. This was followed up by several further visits and is considered the formal introduction of aikido to the United States. The United Kingdom followed in 1955; Italy in 1964; Germany and Australia in 1965. Designated “Official Delegate for Europe and Africa” by Morihei Ueshiba, Masamichi Noro arrived in France in September 1961.

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Aikido makes use of body movement (tai sabaki) to blend with uke. For example, an “entering” (irimi) technique consists of movements inward towards uke, while a “turning” (tenkan) technique uses a pivoting motion. Additionally, an “inside” (uchi) technique takes place in front of uke, whereas an “outside” (soto?) technique takes place to his side; a “front” (omote?) technique is applied with motion to the front of uke, and a “rear” (ura) version is applied with motion towards the rear of uke, usually by incorporating a turning or pivoting motion. Finally, most techniques can be performed while in a seated posture (seiza). Techniques where both uke and nage are sitting are called suwari-waza, and techniques performed with uke standing and nage sitting are called hanmi handachi.

Thus, from fewer than twenty basic techniques, there are thousands of possible implementations. For instance, ikkyō can be applied to an opponent moving forward with a strike (perhaps with an ura type of movement to redirect the incoming force), or to an opponent who has already struck and is now moving back to reestablish distance (perhaps an omote-waza version). Specific aikido kata are typically referred to with the formula “attack-technique(-modifier)”. For instance, katate-dori ikkyō refers to any ikkyō technique executed when uke is holding one wrist. This could be further specified as katate-dori ikkyō omote, referring to any forward-moving ikkyō technique from that grab.

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Atemi are strikes (or feints) employed during an aikido technique. Some view atemi as attacks against “vital points” meant to cause damage in and of themselves. For instance, Gōzō Shioda described using atemi in a brawl to quickly down a gang’s leader. Others consider atemi, especially to the face, to be methods of distraction meant to enable other techniques. A strike, whether or not it is blocked, can startle the target and break his or her concentration. The target may also become unbalanced in attempting to avoid the blow, for example by jerking the head back, which may allow for an easier throw. Many sayings about atemi are attributed to Morihei Ueshiba, who considered them an essential element of technique.

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The way Is In The Training..

Who Is This Guy??

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The History Of Kodokan Judo..

by Keo Cavalcanti

Judo had its origin in the ancient Japanese art of jujutsu, a system of hand-to-hand combat. The bushi of feudal Japan (samurai) are usually credited for developing jujutsu (at their time the art was known as Yoroi kumi-uchi, a grappling method for fighters fully clad in Japanese armor). However, the Nihon Shoki (the Chronicle of the Japanese nation) documents public unarmed competitions (hikara-kurabe) dating back to 230 B.C.

Jujutsu has been known by several names throughout Japanese history: taijutsu, yawara, kempo, kugusoku, kumiuchi, koshinomawan. What is unique to the art is that one did not use brute strength to overpower an opponent, but rather skill, finesse and flexibility. Economy of energy, balance, and grace were the outstanding hallmarks of the good jujutsu practitioner. Unlike the Western hand-to-hand fighter, the jujutsu fighter was expected to be soft and pliable, winning by appearing to yield.

In classical form, during the feudal period, jujutsu was part of the bushi training, along with archery, spearfighting, swordsmanship, horsemanship, maneuvering, and etiquette. Its importance grew with the rise of the bushi class after the late Heian period. Throughout subsequent periods of Japanese history (Kamakura, 1185-1336; Muromachi, 1336-1573 into the Tokugawa period, 1603-1868) the art became more diversified and specialized, being taught in schools (ryus). Ryus organized around different aspects of the art, perpetuating their founders’ vision.

The schools differed in emphasis and strategy. Some specialized in throwing (nage), others in groundwork (osae, shime, kansetsu), and others in striking (atemi). In matters of strategy, some schools valued taking the initiative in combat while others preferred timely reaction to an opponent’s aggression. Those that followed the principles of swordsmanship insisted on sudden, total attack. Others preferred to neutralize the opponent’s attack once it was in motion.

Given the constant state of war in Japanese feudal history, ryus tested their vision of jujutsu on the battlefield, where the premium was on survival. The three hundred years of peace that followed the Japanese civil wars led to a change in the nature of the art. Under the harsh Tokugawa martial codes combats between bushi became rarer and heavy warfare far less frequent. On the other hand, unarmed combat became more common. The rise of the common citizen at the end of the period required that jujutsu techniques be adapted to the needs of everyday life.

At that time, several ryus lost their insistence on ceremonial or ritual posturing in favor of a more practical approach to hand-to-hand combat. By the end of the Tokugawa period, the ancient martial arts of Japan (Bujutsu) created for the warrior class began to lose importance as the martial ways (Budo) created for the commoner gained ascendancy. Budo was not simply a collection of fighting techniques but also a spiritual discipline, a way of life.

During the Meiji Restoration after 1868, the transition from Bujutsu to Budo was completed. Several branches of the martial arts changed names and orientation entirely. Kyujutsu became Kyudo, iai-jutsu became iaido, aiki-jutsu became aikido, and jujutsu became Judo. There was a shift from warfare techniques to everyday life principles, with the spiritual side of the arts being more emphasized. Schools now passed their tradition to students in the form of techniques, philosophy and codes of ethics. Students were expected to be fully versed on hand-to-hand combat, but also to embody the philosophy of the ryu’s founders.

Jigoro Kano

Dr. Jigoro Kano, founder of modern Judo, was born in the town of Mikage in the Hyogo Prefecture, on October 28, 1860. Shihan Kano never viewed the martial arts as a means to display physical prowess or superiority. As a pacifist, he studied them to find a way to live in peace with other human beings. In his youth Kano studied Jujutsu under a number of different masters. Sensei Teinosuke Yagi was his first teacher, but at the age of 18 he entered the dojo of Tenshin-Shinyo Sensei Hachinosuke Fukuda. Upon graduation from Tokyo University, he studied the Kito tradition under Sensei Iikubo. By his mid-twenties, Shihan Kano had been initiated into the secret teachings of both ryus.

Kano’s search for a unifying principle for the techniques he learned led him to the first principle of Judo–Seiryoku Zenyo (maximum efficiency in mental and physical energy). To him, only techniques that kept practitioners from spending much physical and mental energy should be incorporated into the system. One should use the energy of one’s opponent to defeat his or her aggression. He called the resulting body of knowledge Judo. To propagate his art Kano founded the Kodokan (the “school to learn the way”) at the Eishoji Temple in 1882.

Kano built his system around three major sets of techniques: throwing (nage waza), groundwork (katame waza) and striking (atemi waza). The throwing techniques, drawn from the Kito ryu, were further divided into standing (tachi waza) and sacrifice (sutemi waza) techniques. Standing techniques included hand (te waza), hip (koshi waza) and foot (ashi waza) throws. Sacrifice techniques include full sacrifice (ma sutemi waza) and side sacrifice (yoko sutemi waza) throws.

Kano’s groundwork and striking techniques were drawn more heavily from the martially oriented Tenshin-Shinyo ryu. Groundwork is organized into holds (osaekomi waza), strangulations (shime waza) and joint locks (kansetsu waza). While Kano taught groundholds earlier to his students, the secrets of shime and kansetsu waza were saved for those who had attained a higher ranking in the art. High ranking students were also expected to know the art of resuscitation (kappo), so as to conduct their training in a safe and responsible manner.

Judo’s striking techniques included upper (ude ate) and lower limb blows (ashi ate). Among the striking techniques were those utilizing fists, elbows, hand-edges, fingers, knees and feet as striking points. Because of its lethal nature, Atemi waza was also taught exclusively to high ranking Judokas at the Kodokan.

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Judo was taught in a well-structured process. Standing techniques were organized into five sets ranking from less strenuous or technically difficult to more advanced (the Gokyo no Waza). Ground and striking techniques were organized in sets also. The sets were introduced slowly as Judokas became more proficient in the art. Students were divided into mudansha (color belt level) and yudansha (black belt level). Mudansha students were ranked into five classes (kyus) while yudansha were ranked into ten degrees (dans). Ranks indicated the student’s level of expertise in the art as different techniques were introduced at each new rank.

To complete the transition from jutsu (martial art) to Do (way of life), Kano added a strict code of ethics and a humanitarian philosophy to his newly created system. Kodokan instructors and students were expected from the beginning to be outstanding examples of good character and honest conduct. Any hand-to-hand combat outside of the dojo, public demonstrations for profit, or any behavior that might bring shame to the school could lead to suspension or expulsion from the Kodokan.

Kano’s ultimate concern for the well-being of the whole individual and of the community is reflected in his teaching methods and in Judo’s second guiding principle. Kano utilized four teaching methods in his dojo: randori (free practice of all Judo technique), kata (pre-arranged forms, considered the more technical rituals of the art), ko (his systematic lecturing), and mondo (periods of question and answer).

The debates between Shihan Kano and his disciples led him to the second principle of Judo, Jita Kyoei (the principle of mutual benefit and prosperity). Kano believed that the diligent practice of Judo would lead to the realization that one could not progress at the expense of others, that in mutual prosperity lied the key to any real progress in human life. He was so taken with the principle that he regarded its diffusion, through the practice of Judo, as his greatest mission in life.

Most of Judo’s development took place around the turn of the century. In 1889 Kano traveled to Europe and America to promote his martial art. He would make as many as eight trips to other continents to propagate Judo before his untimely death at sea, on May 4, 1938.

The technical aspects of Judo came into full maturity in 1900 with the founding of the Kodokan Yudanshakai (association of black belt holders). On July 24, 1905 eighteen masters representing the leading Japanese Jujutsu ryus gathered at the Butokukai in Kyoto to join Kano’s system. Kano’s work had triumphed over Jujutsu in Japan, replacing the Tokugawa period aggressive martial arts with the more sophisticated way of life he had envisioned. The final touches were added in 1909 when the Kodokan became a foundation and in 1920 with the revision of the throwing techniques called the Gokyo no Waza. The art’s intellectual and moral philosophy came into full being by 1922 with the foundation of the Kodokan Cultural Judo Society.

European Judo in 1921

Between 1912 and 1952, when the International Judo Federation was founded, several Japanese experts immigrated to other continents, spreading Judo teachings. Sensei Gunji Koizumi, 7th Dan, went to Great Britain in 1918, founding the London Budokwai. Mikinosuke Kawaishi, 7th Dan, one of the world’s foremost experts on Judo kata, went to France in 1922. Sensei Sumiyuki Kotani, 8th Dan in 1952, trained the first team of American Air Force Judokas at the Kodokan. That team became the seed of what is now theUnited States Judo Association.

As Judo spread throughout the Western world it slowly gained the form of a sport. Its eventual popularity in World and Regional Games and inclusion in the 1964 Olympic Games led more and more to an emphasis on the physical and competitive aspects of the art, sometimes at the expense of its intellectual, moral and spiritual underpinnings. In 1982 (on the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Kodokan) the Kodokan Judo throwing techniques, the Gokyo no Waza, were revised and expanded, then in 1997 the Kodokan added two additional throws.

The Way Is In The Training..


Chinese Kung Fu..

Kung Fu, an ancient sport popular in China, has a very long history, during which a variety of skills were created and massively improved. Originated from the hunting and defense needs in the primitive society (over 1.7 million years ago – 21st century BC), it at first only included some basic skills like cleaving, chopping, and stabbing. Later the system of Kung Fu formed and developed mainly as the fighting skills from the Xia Dynasty (21st – 17th century BC) to the Yuan Dynasty (1271 – 1368), and reached its peak during the Ming and Qing Dynasties (1368 – 1911). In modern times, it develops well and becomes not just martial skills or physical movement. It is also a way for keeping fit, entertainment, and performance.

Xia Dynasty..

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Forming
Chinese Kung Fu started to form during the slavery society (around 11th century BC – 403 BC). Upon the foundation of the Xia Dynasty, it well developed to be more practical and standard to better serve battles. During the Shang and  Zhou Dynasties (17th century BC – 256 BC), martial dance was used to train soldiers and enhance the morale of the army. The theory of Tai Chi was put forward then to lay a foundation for the early system of Chinese martial arts. Later, the vassal states in the Spring and Autumn Period (770 – 476 BC) paid much attention to the fighting skills used in the battles. Qi Huangong (716 – 643 BC), one of the state kings at that time, even held martial arts contests twice a year to select heroes.

Development
The development of Kung Fu started during the feudal society (221 BC – 1911). After the Emperor Qin Shihuang (259 – 210 BC) unified the central plain of China, the fighting skills among the soldiers gradually developed into Guanzhong Boxing which was called Hong Fist later. Wrestling, fencing, sword dance and sword fighting were popular during the Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC – 220 AD). For example, Xiang Zhuang, a famous general at that time, played sword at Hongmen Banquet with the intention to kill Liu Bang, who later became the Emperor Gaozu of the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC – 24 AD).

In the Song Dynasty (960 – 1279), at the request of Yue Fei and other patriotic generals, a large number of soldiers and common people tended to practice Kung Fu. It was at that time that Southern Fist (Nanquan) became a popular style taking Hangzhou as the practice center. The Southern Fist mainly emphasized the motions of upper limbs. The movement of elbows and knees was the assistant skills. Later, many similar groups were established to promote the integration of northern and southern martial arts.

Song Dynasty..

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In the Yuan Dynasty (1271 – 1368), since Han nationality was thought of as the ragtag, Han people were forbidden to practice Kung Fu in groups, but they secretly gathered to play. It’s said that Jueyuan, the abbot of Shaolin Temple at that time, succeeded the Eighteen Arhats Fist to create the Seventy-two Fists (Huaquan). Later, he learned Li Family Fist, Baimo Fist and Choy Li Fut to further improve all the skills into One-hundred and Seventy-two Fists, including Five-Element Boxing and Eight-Diagram Boxing.

Shaolin Temple..

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In the Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644), Long Fist (Changquan), Hong Fist and Kicking Legs appeared with the single and pair practice. The combination of the northern and southern styles composed the Shaolin School Boxing. Qi Jiguang, a famous patriotic general in the Ming Dynasty, compiled all the skills throughout China at that time, including Long Fist, Short Hands, Hong Fist, Bazi Fist and other skills and people called them Southern Shaolin Boxing. Later, Long Fist, Short Hands, Five Fist and Hua Fist of Shandong Province, Five Shapes Boxing and Crane Boxing of Fujian Province as well as the Hung Kuen, Wing Chun and Choy Li Fut of Guangxi and Guangdong provinces became the mainstream during that time.

In the Qing Dynasty (1644 – 1911), Han people were still forbidden to practice Kung Fu in groups and Southern Shaolin Temple gradually declined. The Shaolin Temple at Mt. Songshan in Henan was under strict supervision. Even the monks were not given the right to practice. However, some works on martial arts were widespread in folk circles. During the middle and end of the dynasty, the basic classification of Internal Boxing and external Boxing was formed, whilst the Northern Legs and Southern Fists became well known. After the first Sino-British Opium War in 1840, many folk martial arts groups sprung up to prevent the British army entering Guangdong. Many specific genres including the Form/Intention Boxing (Xingyiquan), Hung Kuen, Southern Shaolin Boxing, Wing Chun and Tai Chi started to be well improved. After 1864, Hung Kuen, including Hua Fist and Eight-Diagram Boxing was introduced to Jiangsu and Zhejiang areas.

Tai Chi..

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During the Republic of China (1912 – 1949), Jingwu Gymnastics Club, the first non-government Kung Fu organization, was established by Huo Yuanjia and Nong Jinsun. Later it developed many branches in Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam and other countries.

Nowadays, China government tends to attach more importance to traditional Chinese Kung Fu which has been compiled as content of courses. Every year many performances and contests are held to encourage civilians to learn and inherit the skills. Various groups or organizations have been founded for better advertising and developing, such as International Martial Arts Federation and Chinese Martial Arts Association. Many schools are correspondingly established to teach all kinds of skills, such as Wudang Sanfeng Martial Arts School and Songshan Shaolin Martial Arts School. Moreover, Chinese Kung Fu has come to the world stage to attract more and more foreign people to enjoy and learn.

Modern Kung Fu..

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The Way Is In The Training..